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   3.  Pre Purchase Moisture Inspection
   4.  Pre Sale Inspections
   5.  Home Moisture Inspection
   6.  Leak Tracking Inspections
   7.  Pre Painting/Maintenance Inspections
   8.  Building Inspections
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   11.  Mould Checks
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   17.  Gallery – Residential
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   21.  Preventative Maintenance
   22.  Gallery – Industrial
   23.  Links
   24.  Ask A Question
   25.  Why Use Us
   26.  Moisture Management Systems (MMS)
   27.  Full Weather tightness Reports
   28.  Non Invasive Moisture Readings
   29.  Invasive Moisture Testing
   30.  Electrical Periodic Verification Inspections
   31.  Electrical Verification inspections
   32.  Book On-Line
   33.  Feedback
   34.  Testimonials
   35.  Frequently Ask Questions
   36.  Statement of Conditions
   37.  Meth Lab Testing
Posts (8)  
   1.  Site Map (0)
   2.  Why Use Infrared? (0)
   3.  What is infrared? (0)
   4.  Common Species of Mould (0)
   5.  For more info on Starchybotrys check these links out: (0)
   6.  Ten Things You Should Know About Mould (0)
   7.  Tip for Selling a Home (0)
   8.  Tips For Buying a Home (0)

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Why Use Infrared?

– No need to shut down equipment for inspections
– Non invasive testing
– Quick identification of problems
– Accurate temperature measurement
– Full detailed analytical reports
– Saves you valuable down time and money
– Avoids production time losses

Without doubt preventative maintenance with City Line Ir is the way to a trouble free future.

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What is infrared?

Infrared (IR) energy is light that is not visible because its wavelength is too long to be detected by the human eye; it’s the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we perceive as heat. Every object above ‘Absolute Zero’ emits electromagnetic radiation or heat. The higher the object’s temperature, the greater the Infrared radiation emitted. Infrared thermography cameras allow us to see what our eyes cannot see.

A thermography infrared camera is a non-contact device that detects infrared energy (heat) and converts it into an electronic signal, which is then processed to produce a thermal image on a video monitor and perform temperature calculations. Heat sensed by an infrared camera can be very precisely quantified, or measured, allowing you to not only monitor thermal performance, but also identify and evaluate the relative severity of heat-related problems.
When water/moisture exists in a building, it heats up faster or slower than in surrounding materials, thus letting the infrared camera pick up the difference in temperature.

On completion of the City Line IR inspection the images will be analysed and you will be provided with a comprehensive report of the results.

infrared wavelength of thermal imaging camera

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Common Species of Mould

Aspergillus – Stachybotrys – Cladosporium – Fusarium – Penicillium – Mycotoxins

Note: Different mould species can have varying health effects, but it is important to remember that any excessive mould growth needs to be taken care of, regardless of the species. Any excessive mould growth can lead to increased allergies, toxicity, and house/building structural problems.

Aspergillus spp

Aspergillus is the most common genus of fungi in our environment with more than 160 different species of mould. Sixteen of these species have been documented as causing human disease. Aspergillosis is now the 2nd most common fungal infection requiring hospitalization in the United States .

Aspergillus fumigatus. The most encountered species causing infection. It is seen abundantly in decomposing organic material, such as self-heating compost piles, since it readily grows at temperatures up to 55 C. People who handle contaminated material often develop hypersensitivity to the spores of Aspergillus and may suffer severe allergic reactions upon exposure.

Aspergillus flavus. The 2nd most encountered fungi in cases ofAspergillus infection. It is also known to produce the mycotoxin aflatoxin, one of the most potent carcinogens known to man. In the 1960s, 100,000 turkey poults in Great Britain died from ingesting contaminated feed. Most countries have established levels for aflatoxin in food. However, the risks associated with airborne exposure are not adequately studied and no exposure standards exist.

Aspergillus niger. The 3rd most common Aspergillus fungi associated with disease and the most common of any Aspergillus species in nature due to it’s ability to grow on a wide variety of substrates. This species may cause a “fungal ball”, which is a condition where the fungus actively proliferates in the human lung, forming a ball. It does so without invading the lung tissue.

Stachybotrys chartarum (atra)

This group of moulds can thrive on water damaged, cellulose-rich material in buildings such as sheet rock, paper, ceiling tiles, insulation backing, wallpaper, etc. In the majority of cases where Stachybotrysis found indoors, water damage has gone unnoticed or ignored since it requires extended periods of time with increased levels of moisture for growth to occur. Stachybotrys is usually black and slimy in appearance. Events of water intrusion that are addressed quickly tends to support the growth of more xerophilic fungi such asPencillium and Aspergillus.

Stachybotrys is another fungi that has the ability to produce mycotoxins, ones that are extremely toxic, suspected carcinogens, and immunosuppressive. Exposure to these mycotoxins can result through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Symptoms of exposure include dermatitis, cough, rhinitis, nose bleeds, cold and flu-like symptoms, headache, general malaise, and fever.

Cladosporium spp.

These genera of mould are pigmented dark green to black in the front, and black on the reverse with a velvety to powdery texture.  One of the most commonly isolated from indoor and outdoor air,Cladosporium spp. are found on decaying plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint, textiles, and the surface of fiberglass duct liner in the interior of supply ducts.

There are over 30 species in the Cladosporium genus. The most common are C. elatum, C. herbarum, C. sphaerospermum, and C. cladosporioides. These fungi are the causative agents of skin lesions, keratitis, nail fungus, sinusitis, asthma, and pulmonary infections. Acute symptoms of exposure to Cladosporium are edema and bronchiospasms, and chronic exposure may lead to pulmonary emphysema.

Fusarium spp.

A common soil fungus and inhabitant on a wide array of plants, this fungi is often found in humidifiers and has been isolated from water-damaged carpets and a variety of other building materials.  Human exposure may occur through ingestion of contaminated grains and possibly through the inhalation of spores. Fusarium spp. are frequently involved with eye, skin, and nail infections. More severely it can produce hemorrhagic syndrome (alimentary toxic aleukia) in humans which is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dermatitis, and extensive internal bleeding.

Several species can produce the trichothecene toxins which target the circulatory, alimentary, skin, and nervous systems. Vomitoxin is one such tricothecene mycotoxin that has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastrointestinal illness in humans. Zearalenone is another mycotoxin produced by Fusarium. It is similar in structure to the female sex hormone estrogen and targets the reproductive organs.

Penicillium spp.

These fungi are commonly found in soil, food, cellulose, grains, paint, carpet, wallpaper, interior fiberglass duct insulation, and decaying vegetation. Penicillium may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, and allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals.

The genus Penicillium has several species. The most common ones include Penicillium chrysogenumPenicillium citrinumPenicillium janthinellumPenicillium marneffei, and Penicillium purpurogenum.

This fungi has been isolated from patients with keratitis, ear infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis, and urinary tract infections. Penicillium infections are most commonly exhibited in immunosuppressed individuals. For example, P. marneffei is a fungus abundant in Southeast Asia that typically infects patients with AIDS in this area. Infection with P.marneffei is acquired via inhalation and initially results in a pulmonary infection and then spreads to other areas of the body (lymphatic system, liver, spleen, and bones), and is often fatal. An indication of infection is the appearance of papules that resemble acne on the face, trunk, and extremities.

Penicillim spp. do have the ability to produce mycotoxins. The mycotoxin known as Ochratoxin A, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic, may be produced by Penicillium verrucosum. Verrucosidin is another mycotoxin produced by this fungus that exhibits neurotoxity. Penicillic acid is another mycotoxin that is nephrotoxic (causes kidney and liver damage).


During the digestion of substrates, fungi secrete enzymes into nutrients in order to break down complex compounds into simpler compounds that can be taken up by the fungi and used as nutrition. These digested nutrients produce secondary metabolic byproducts called mycotoxins that are released to give the fungi a competitive edge over other microorganisms and fungi. Unfortunately, mycotoxins can also be incredibly toxic to humans causing a variety of responses including cold/flu-like symptoms, sore throats, headaches, nose bleeds, fatigue, diarrhea, dermatitis, and immune suppression. Some mycotoxins may also be carcinogenic and teratogenic. Moulds that have been known to potentially produce these toxins areAcremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Stachybotrys.

Even though these moulds may potentially produce mycotoxins, they will not do so unless specific environmental conditions exist. Currently, it is unknown exactly what conditions promote the growth of mycotoxin production and more scientific research needs to be conducted on this topic for it to be fully understood.

Types of Mycotoxins

Aflatoxin. This mycotoxin is primarily produced by Aspergillus species. It is one of the most potent carcinogens known to man and has been linked to a wide array of human health problems. The FDA has established a maximum allowable level of total aflatoxin in food commodities of 20 parts per billion (ppb) and  the maximum level for aflatoxin in milk products is 0.5 ppb.

Ochratoxin. This mycotoxin is primarily produced by species ofPenicillium and Aspergillus. It can be damaging to the kidneys / liver, and it is a suspected carcinogen. There is also evidence supporting it’s role in impairing immune system function.

Tricothecene. The toxin is produced by Stachybotrys spp. andFusarium spp and has even been indicated as a potential agent for use as a biological weapon. One of the more deadly mycotoxins, if it is ingested in large amounts it can severely damage the entire digestive tract and cause rapid death due to internal hemorrhaging.It has also been implicated in human disease such as infant pulmonary hemosiderosis.


For more info on Starchybotrys check these links out:

– Risks to Health from Moulds and Other Fungi

– Health risks

– Take Care When Repairing Leaky Buildings

– Toxic Rot in Homes Linked to Sickness

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Ten Things You Should Know About Mould

Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mould exposures include allergic reactions, asthma, and other respiratory complaints.

1. There is no practical way to eliminate all moulds and mould spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mould growth is to control moisture.
2. If mould is a problem in your home, office or school, you must clean up the mould and eliminate sources of moisture.
3. Fix the source of the water problem or leak to prevent mould growth.
4. Reduce indoor humidity (to 30-60% ) to decrease mould growth by: venting bathrooms, dryers, and other moisture-generating sources to the outside; using air conditioners and de-humidifiers; increasing ventilation; and using exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing, and cleaning.
5. Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent mould growth.
6. Clean mould off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely. Absorbent materials such as ceiling tiles, that are mouldy, may need to be replaced.
7. Prevent condensation: Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows, piping, exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.
8. In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking fountains, by classroom sinks, or on concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).
9. Moulds can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance, providing moisture is present.
10. There are moulds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.


Tip for Selling a Home

1 – Make sure the house is light and brighttips for buying a home

Having a dark home can be a major negative factor for prospective buyers.

2 – Be sure to remove any clutter

Creating space is also very important from a  presentation aspect.

3 – Use a proven professional photographer for the property photos

It has been proven time and time again that good photos generate interest in a home and so more buyers to a property.

4 – Use proven agents that have a good track record in your area

This will help in the professional approach to selling your home.

5 – Rearrange Bedroom Closets and Kitchen Cabinets

Buyers love to snoop and will open closet and cabinet doors. Think of the message it sends to them if items fall out! Now, imagine what a buyer believes about you if they see everything organized. It says you probably take good care of the rest of the house as well.

6 – De-Personalize your home

Pack up those personal photographs and family heirlooms. Buyers can’t see past personal artifacts, and you don’t want them to be distracted. You want buyers to imagine their own photos on the walls, and they can’t do that if yours are there!

7 – Make Minor Repairs

– Repair cracks in the cladding

– Replace cracked floor or counter tiles
– Patch holes in walls
– Fix leaky taps
– Fix doors that don’t close properly and kitchen drawers that jam
– Consider painting your walls neutral colors, especially if you have grown accustomed to purple or pink walls
– Replace burned-out light bulbs

8 – Make the House Sparkle!

-Wash windows inside and out

-Pressure wash exterior cladding and paths

-Clean out cobwebs

-Re-caulk baths, showers and sinks

-Polish chrome faucets and mirrors

-Clean out the refrigerator

-Vacuum daily

-Dust furniture, ceiling fan blades and light fixtures

-Bleach grout

-Replace worn rugs

-Hang up fresh towels

-Clean and air out any musty smelling areas. Odors are a no-no

9 – Get an independent valuation

Having a registerered valuation does not only give you an assessment of what the property should be listed at, but it also gives you an  independent assessment.

10 – Have City Line Infrared Undertake an Infrared Pre Sale Inspection

These days there is a stigma around buying a home with monolithic cladding, as it could be a leaky home.

Undertaking a Thermal Imaging Infrared inspection will give people at the open home piece of mind, that an inspection has been done, and a report written to confirm that there are no moisture problems in the home. This will then allow them to take it to the next level and hopefully make an offer.

To find out more Click Here.

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Tips For Buying a Home

1 –  Have City Line Infrared undertake an a full infrared pre purchase building inspectioninfrared tips for selling a home

When you have found your dream home make sure you get an Infrared moisture inspection, so you know you are not buying a leaky home. If the house is a leaky home it may cost hundreds of thousands to fix. This could wipe out your saving for the last ten years. It’s a small cost to pay compared to the cost of leaky home repairs. We at City Line Infrared can undertake a full infrared pre purchase building inspection to check the condition of the house.

2 – Know How Much You Can Afford

Setting your heart on a beautiful five-bedroom, three-and-a-half-bathroom estate on the hill could set you up for disappointment if you don’t know what you can afford. Make a budget and find out how much you can pay a month, make sure you add in any maintenance/repair costs need that was highlighted in the building report.

3 – Prioritize Your Needs and Wants

When working within a budget, sometimes you have to make some compromises. Knowing what you really need can help narrow your home options and also make decisions easier when it comes to making an offer. Create a checklist of your needs and wants. Don’t forget to include things that aren’t actually a part of the house, but important, such as the neighbourhood, commute, school system and even proximity to entertainment

4 – Explore Mortgage Options

Think about your long-term plan when you’re exploring your mortgage options. You might be someone who never plans to buy another home, so maybe you’re more interested in a 30-year, fixed-rate mortgage. However, another couple might look at this home as a starter property that they only want to own until their second child is born. They might want an adjustable rate mortgage. Shopping around for a mortgage is also a good idea.

5 – Get Pre-approved for a Loan

Pre-approval will help you to understand how much you can expect to borrow from your lender. Knowing your spending range can help to narrow your home search to properties within your price range. It can also give sellers a little more confidence in your seriousness when making an offer

6 – Understand the Offer Process

While there’s no way to know exactly what type of offer the seller will accept, when making your offer you should take into account several things. Knowing how long the house has been on the market, the asking price’s position related to comparable properties in the area, and even the number of available comparable properties in the neighborhood can make a difference. Realize that negotiation is usually inevitable, so be sure to leave a little leeway within that first offer. Make sure that your offer includes contingencies such as financing costs, lawyer fees and infrared moisture and building inspections. You don’t want to be bound to purchase a home if you don’t have enough money or that it turns out to be a leaky home.

7 – Understand What You’re Signing

You’re in the home stretch. Only a few papers stand between you and getting the keys to your first home. But don’t get carried away. You may want to request a lawyer be sent a draft copy of any documents to preview before the actual signing takes place. This will take away some of those emotional jitters and also allow you a bit more time to make sense of what you’re signing. Don’t be shy — if you don’t understand something, then ask the professionals to explain it further.

8 – Check the Neighbours out.

You are going to be living there, make sure the people next to you are people want to live next to. Neighbours can make your life hell. Come back to the property at different times during the day and night to see if there are any big parties or other activities that may affect the way you live your life.

9 – Order a LIM

A Land Information Memorandum is a report available from the Council upon request, which provides information from our records on a property and its land. Anyone may apply for a LIM and it’s a good idea to do so if you’re planning on purchasing a property. A LIM may assist you in determining if a property has any restrictions or whether your intended use of the land is feasible.

10 – Get the property valued

This will take out the emotional part of buying a house. You will have an independent idea of what the house is worth and if you are paying to much. Don’t let your emotions get the best of you at an auction and allow you to pay to much. Know what you will bid to and stick to it. There are always other houses out there.

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